EXISTENTIAL NEGOTIATION PRACTICES
Fundamental motivations as structure for the process of negotiation
At the beginning the basic concepts used in the title of the article are explained. The general characteristics of inner approval during negotiation are further described. The stages of negotiation are then viewed through the prism of the search method for inner approval. Additionally, applicable methods of Existential Analysis during negotiation preparation and implementation are presented. Required conditions for finding inner approval, such as in organizational systems, are presented.
Keywords: Existential Analysis, existential fundamental motivations, inner approval, negotiation, legal practice
BURNOUT PREVENTION FOR PARENTS
An existential-analytical approach based on empirical results
Burnout is not only a phenomenon in professional work but can also be found in parents fulfilling their parental duties for their own children. Thirty-two parents with burnout were given the Parents-Burnout-Questionnaire. The results were interpreted existentially with the help of the ESK and TEM by correlating the burnout scores with existential meaning and existential fulfillment. – On the basis of these results a procedure for individual counseling for burnout-patients was developed based on the questions of the TEM. – Examples of such counselling conversations are presented.
Keywords: burnout, existential fulfillment, meaning, parent’s burnout questionnaire, Existence-Scale (ESK), Test of Existential Motivation (TEM)
EVERY HUMAN NEEDS THE OTHER…
Personal deprivation and its influence on the development of the personality
This article is an attempt to fill the already known term of «deprivation» with a new content. The concept is put into the light of the modern Existential Analysis and the therein described personal dimension in the human being. In this light the term «personal deprivation» is suggested. Two forms of personal deprivation are described along with case studies: the acute (traumatic) form and the less traumatic, longer lasting one which accumulates gradually the depriving effects.
Keywords: spirituality, personal deprivation, personal development, psychic trauma, Existential Analysis.
WHAT ENTAILS OLD AGE?
Suffering and maturing as existential challenge
Amongst the many age-related problems quite a number of specifically existential themes can be identified. They contribute considerably to the suffering of age.
Aging in this context is understood as a progressive loss of competence on the somatic, psychic and social level with an increasing need for help as a result. This changes the type of Being-in-the-world and claims a new understanding of oneself and one’s world. If the necessary attitudes cannot be developed adequately, psychic disorders can arise. The experience of existential limitations may give rise to histrionic reactions; the suffering from the transitory nature of life may provoke depressions; and the failing sense of support brought about by the inexorably diminishing competence may cause fears and anxiety. One‘s remaining life span makes one face the existential and ontological questions of the meaning of life.
Maturity is put forward as the main benefit of aging. It is understood as a good balance of participation and withdrawal, in an attitude of supportive abstention. The exploration of the inner world and the installation within oneself are expounded as the greatest gain of aging. This results in a view of the process of aging as an increasing condensation of life in the sense of more being.
Keywords: aging, maturity, being, meaning of life, Existential Analysis
ON THE ART OF BEING ADULT
Impulses for personality development
Being adult has to do both with age as well as the maturity a person acquires in the course of a lifetime. This maturity shows in the ability to assume self-responsibility for one’s own life and its challenges. Aside the difficulties and characteristics of being adult, the essential tasks are described that must be coped with in terms of shouldering self-responsibility. Furthermore, the effects of a mature approach towards life are demonstrated, which appear in the ability to live with an attitude that favors giving without omitting oneself.
Keywords: being adult, maturity, authenticity, personality
TO LIVE FINALLY
On the magic within the beginning and the art of letting go
Being in presence allows us to experience fulfilled times and, as if guided by an invisible hand, we thereby approach what was. We thus weave, thread by thread, the artful structure of our biography. We enjoy the present as children do when playing, bothered neither by the past nor the future. And yet: Already at an early stage, the death of others reminds us of the inability to exist, and by consequence the many guises of fear make us freeze facing the abyss, we experience ourselves as helplessly abandoned after the separation from what we love or we suffer from a painful humiliation in isolated seclusion. This is when the hardships in life become visible to us in menacing failure. In order to endure this it becomes necessary to engage upon the threat or the hurtful abandonment, a letting go of projections onto life. Ultimately, already at this point it is a matter of letting go, which is more than ever demanded from us facing the abysmal certainty of death, this deep insult of mankind. The finitude of life essentially reminds us of the exiguity to live, so urging us to finally start living and enables us to experience meaning through the realization of values. With this attitude we succeed, despite all limitations, in experiencing a supporting certitude which allows us to courageously and confidently head for life in all its appearances. In this contribution, inspirations from art, poetry and philosophy as well as experiences from psychotherapy illustrate these thoughts and make an existential perspective become visible.
Keywords: attentiveness, finitude, death, serenity, Existential Analysis, meaning
ACHIEVING THE GOOD
A geronto-psychiatric care and support concept
Using the concept of understanding care and support, central themes of Existential Analysis for inpatient geriatric work are elaborated, establishing a respectful and therapeutically effective manner of handling elderly and psychiatric patients.
Within the horizon of a humanistic anthropology and of a holistic view oriented towards the essence of the human being, a hermeneutical effort is substantial which tries to comprehend human experiencing and behavior through its motives.
The one person in his/her uniqueness and individuality, with his/her own way of life and habits, his/her subjective experience and suffering is the main focus, not mainly clinical diagnoses or functional deficits defining him/her as an invalid.
Understanding care and support wishes to contribute to creating a preventive and rehabilitative relationship and environment in which the living conditions as well as the biography of the elderly are taken into account.
Keywords: biography, empathy, hermeneutic approach, living conditions, shaping environment, person, understanding
THE TREATMENT OF ELDERLY PEOPLE: A PROGRESS REPORT
Aging is burdened by the loss of abilities and strength in the physical, mental and social spheres of life (Längle 1994). The confrontation with these losses is a major challenge which can lead to growth and maturation on the one hand and on the other hand excessive demand causing psychological suffering. The following article pursues the question, which problems lead elderly people to seek psychiatric-psychotherapeutic treatment and how the course of treatment is evaluated by Existential Analysis.
Keywords: old age, spiritual dimension (Frankl), resources
WHAT IS NICE ABOUT OLD AGE?
Today, ageing is mostly associated with concepts such as loss, hopelessness and retreat. By directing the focus of attention towards possibly even pleasant aspects of ageing, we might maneuver away from this mainstream to some extent and could allow ourselves a more open phenomenological view on this stage of life. The following article pursues this trail and allows ageing people to respond to the question on the beautiful sides of old age.
Keywords: age, experience of values, positive aspects
THE DAY-STRUCTURING MORNING GROUP –
INTRODUCTION AND EXISTENTIAL ANALYTICAL FOUNDATION OF AN INNOVATIVE SOCIO-PSYCHIATRIC GROUP CONCEPT
C. TOBIAS JAHN
A group concept, which originated in the outpatient psychiatric work due to patients‘ needs for support in starting the day, is reviewed for its effectiveness and its possible existential foundation. Following the presentation of the concept, a first look at the current, more biologically oriented state of research on physical exercise and depressive symptoms shall be taken. Thereafter, a patient survey for individually perceived effectiveness and their results is presented and discussed. Finally, the observed phenomena are transferred into the structural model of Existential Analysis of Alfried Längle.
Keywords: physical exercise, depression, daily structure, morning low, Existential Fundamental Motivations
RESOURCE ORIENTED WORK WITH DEMENTIA PATIENTS AND THEIR RELATIVES
Enhanced medical technology is resulting in a demographical shift towards longer life expectancy in our society. This leads to a growing number of people affected by illness from the spectrum disorder of dementia, challenging affected patients as well as their relatives. The following article intends to provide an overview of therapeutic approaches for working with patients suffering from dementia as well their loved ones. The first chapter refers to the clinical symptoms and risk factors, followed by treatment approaches of psychotherapy and counselling and the last chapter concludes with a reflection and an outlook.
Keywords: Dementia, therapeutic work, resource-orientation
EXISTENTIAL ANALYSIS IN RETIREMENT AND NURSING HOMES
How Existential Analysis can serve the nursing staff and the inhabitants of retirement and nursing homes
Existential-analytic counsellors and therapists have been working in retirement and nursing homes for a long time now. In the first place they offer counselling and therapy to the inhabitants. Regarding prevention in this area, Existential Analysis could further offer the nursing staff very important guiding so that – by applying existential analytic theory and especially self-reflection – they learn to pay attention to their own needs. This learning process could empower the nursing staff to act as “existential analytic multipliers” and by that enable the inhabitants to live a life that is true to their own principles, and is as self-defined and humane as possible. After further specifying the concept and evaluating it, this could be the basis for the development of an existential analytic nursing concept.
Keywords: nursing concept, prevention, existential analytic nursing induction, basic motivations, nursing staff, inhabitants
SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LOGO THERAPEUTIC COUNSELING AND EXISTENTIAL ANALYTIC CONSULTING OF RESIDENTS IN RETIREMENT HOMES
This article deals with the opportunities and limitations of existential analytic consulting and logo therapeutic counseling of elderly people. It illuminates the question, to what extent existential analytic consulting in old age is appropriate support or (still) serves any purpose.
Keywords: old age, impact of old age, fundamental motivations, retirement home